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Citation Styles

Using ACM Style Citations

The Association for Computing Machinery, (ACM) is the world's largest educational and scientific computing society.

About Reference Formats

  • List References numerically, in the order that you have cited them.
  • ACM's preference is for full names and not initials or abbreviations.

Example of a numerical entry for a webpage in the reference list:

[1]  Jakob Nielsen. 2020. 10 Usability Heuristics for User Interface Design. Retrieved August 13,
     2021 from    


Please note: many websites show examples of ACM citations using author's surname and initials. Some show them in all caps. In the examples on  ACM's own website, author names are given in full, first name first. e.g.:

[1] Patricia S. Abril and Robert Plant. 2007. The patent holder's dilemma: Buy, sell, or troll? Commun. ACM 50, 1 (Jan. 2007), 36-44. DOI:

[1] David Kosiur. 2001. Understanding Policy-Based Networking (2nd. ed.). Wiley, New York, NY.

About Reference Formats

"Reference linking and citation counts are facilitated by use of these standard reference formats. Please adhere to the reference formats for ACM publications. If you do not, and your paper is accepted, it will be returned to you for proper formatting.

By using your BibTeX (.bib) file with the appropriate .bst file (ACM Reference Format) your references should require minimum editing.

ACM's preference is for full names and not initials or abbreviations."

For examples go to the ACM Citation Style website.