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Citation Styles

Who and what it is

Papers submitted to the American Society of Civil Engineers publication library must be formatted according to Manuscript Submission and Revision Requirements described in detail here.

Author-Date References

ASCE requires Author-Date References to serve as citations for manuscripts submitted to them. Material to be cited includes any factual statement which did not originate with the author(s). In this case the citation is placed directly after the factual statement. The citation includes the surname of the originator of the fact stated, along with the date of the publication where the fact appeared.


... as stated in the proceeding (Shields 2021) the critical factor was... [note that there is no comma between sentence and citation].

...analysis by researchers (Shields 2018, Gormley 2016) has shown that... [The factual material appears in more than one publication].

For publications with three or more authors, use the first author’s surname followed by “et al.” in the text citation:

...firms overlook analysis tools (Yates et al. 2020)

for publications with only two authors use "and" between the surnames:

...storms dropped 37 cm of rain with gusts up to 206 km/h (Elliott and Kang 2012)

To cite material by the same author(s) published in the same year designate with lowercase letters: 2004a, 2004b. In text, these are presented as, for example, 2004a, b.

...yielded varying results (Jones 2010; Marks and Smith 2004a, b)


If the author's name is used in the sentence it is not necessary to repeat it, but include the date of publication of the factual material:

Becker (2021) finds schedule impacts from Covid-19 to be...

Reference List

The reference list should appear at the end of each chapter in a book or end of the manuscript for a paper.

References begin with the last name of the first author, then all the authors with initials appearing first, then the year of publication not in parentheses. References lists are alphabetized by the last name of the first author. For abbreviations of journal names, go to the Woodward Library
                                            -ASCE Library,Publications Division, Publishing Books with ASCE

The formatting of the reference list is detailed and complex. Download the ASCE instruction page with examples and use the examples there as a template.

ASCE Style Examples

Cryptids are animals whose existence is disputed.(Hurn 2016 p. 1) Nessie is one example.(Cray 1959 p. 258) Bigfoot is another cryptid.(Westrum 1980 p. 27)

Cray, E. 1959. “Loch Ness Monster.” West. Folk., 18 (3): 258–259.

Hurn, S. (Ed.). 2016. Anthropology and Cryptozoology: Exploring Encounters with Mysterious Creatures. Multispecies Encounters. New York: Routledge.

Westrum, R. 1980. “Sasquatch and Scientists: Reporting Scientific Anomalies.” Manlike Monsters Trial Early Rec. Mod. Evid., M. M. Halpin and M. M. Ames, eds., 27–36. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press.

Sample Books for Citations


Title: Anthropology and Cryptozoology: Exploring Encounters with Mysterious Creatures

Editor: Samantha Hurn

Publisher: Routledge

Place of Publication: New York

Date of Publication: 2016

Book Section

Chapter Title: Sasquatch and Scientists: Reporting Scientific Anomalies

Chapter Author: Ron Westrum

Book Title: Manlike Monsters on Trial: Early Records and Modern Evidence

Book Editors: Marjorie M. Halpin and Michael M. Ames

Publisher: University of British Columbia Press

Place of Publication: Vancouver, BC

Date of Publication: 1980

Pages: 27-36

Journal Article

Article Title: Loch Ness Monster

Author: Ed Cray

Journal Title: Western Folklore

Volume: 18

Issue: 3

Date: 1959

Pages: 258-259