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Citation Styles

IEEE citation style is a standard set by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. The citation style takes the form of a number within square brackets, inside the punctuation, in the text. The number refers to a numbered list of references.

Example (from IEEE website)

as shown by Brown [4], [5]; as mentioned earlier [2], [4]–[7], [9]; Smith [4] and Brown and Jones [5]; Wood et
al. [7]
NOTE: Use et al. when three or more names are given for a reference cited in the text.
or as nouns:
as demonstrated in [3]; according to [4] and [6]–[9]

Basics of IEEE Citations

This tutorial refers to a bibliography, which IEEE calls References. 

If you cannot access the above video, you can watch it here

How to Create in-Text Citations

In IEEE citations, the references should be numbered and appear in the order of appearance in the text. 


According to [4], the complexity of mechanical and electrical systems and applications of vibratory equipment in them have increased markedly in recent years. For example, vibration is put to work in vibrating power tools like jackhammers and chainsaws, vibratory feeders and conveyors, hoppers, sieves, electric toothbrushes, dentist’s drills, mobile phones, including the fitness machines in recent times [5]. 


[1]     M. C. Potter and R. Mackiewicz, Mechanical Vibration and Shock Analysis, 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2015, pp. 17–19.

[2]     J. D. Bellamy, Introduction to Machine Vibration. New York: Wiley, 2010.

[3]     C. Jacks, Machinery Vibration and Rotordynamics. New York: Penguin Random House, 2013, pp. 175–225.

[4]     A. Brandon, “Vibration analysis resolves vibration equipment problems,” in Fundamental and Advanced Vibration Analysis. New York: Wiley, 2014, ch. 7, pp. 129–134.

[5]     Engineers Australia (2014, June). Vibration Analysis: Design and Troubleshooting, Engineers Australia, Canberra. Accessed on: Feb. 1, 2017. [Online]. Available: