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Genocide: Armenian, Rwandan, Cambodian, and the Holocaust

crowd of refugees on a road

What is Genocide?

"On December 9, 1948, in the shadow of the Holocaust, the United Nations approved the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. This convention establishes genocide as an international crime, which signatory nations “undertake to prevent and punish.” It defines genocide as:

[A]ny of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group such as:

❖ Killing members of the group;
❖ Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;
❖ Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part;
❖ Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;
❖ Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.

The specific “intent to destroy” particular groups is unique to genocide. A closely related category of international law, crimes against humanity, is defined as widespread or systematic attacks against civilians.'

(from the US Holocaust Memorial Museum)

Guide Overview

This guide serves to provide resources for the following genocides:

Each page includes an overview of historical event (with relevant links to resources) and a sub page called "Education Resources" that includes a combination of primary resources, documentaries, websites, secondary sources, and articles. All of which cover topics that include: the 10 stages of genocide; context that led to genocide; world responses; and characteristics of the victims, bystanders, perpetrators, and upstanders.