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UMass Lowell Library Resources on Racism in the United States

Books: Health Care Disparity

Black and Blue : the Origins and Consequences of Medical Racism

Black & Blue is the first systematic description of how American doctors think about racial differences and how this kind of thinking affects the treatment of their black patients. The standard studies of medical racism examine past medical abuses of black people and do not address the racially motivated thinking and behaviors of physicians practicing medicine today. Black & Blue penetrates the physician's private sphere where racial fantasies and misinformation distort diagnoses and treatments. Doctors have always absorbed the racial stereotypes and folkloric beliefs about racial differences that permeate the general population. Within the world of medicine this racial folklore has infiltrated all of the medical sub-disciplines, from cardiology to gynecology to psychiatry. Doctors have thus imposed white or black racial identities upon every organ system of the human body, along with racial interpretations of black children, the black elderly, the black athlete, black musicality, black pain thresholds, and other aspects of black minds and bodies. The American medical establishment does not readily absorb either historical or current information about medical racism. For this reason, racial enlightenment will not reach medical schools until the current race-aversive curricula include new historical and sociological perspectives.

Race, Ethnicity, and Health

Race, Ethnicity and Health, Second Edition, is a new andcritical selection of hallmark articles that address healthdisparities in America. It effectively documents the need for equaltreatment and equal health status for minorities. Intended as aresource for faculty and students in public health as well as thesocial sciences, it will be also be valuable to public healthadministrators and frontline staff who serve diverse racial andethnic populations. The book brings together the bestpeer reviewed research literature from the leading scholars andfaculty in this growing field, providing a historical and politicalcontext for the study of health, race, and ethnicity, with keyfindings on disparities in access, use, and quality. This volumealso examines the role of health care providers in healthdisparities and discusses the issue of matching patients anddoctors by race. There has been considerable new research since the originalmanuscript?s preparation in 2001 and publication in 2002, andreflecting this, more than half the book is newcontent.  New chapters cover: reflections on demographicchanges in the US based on the current census; metrics andnomenclature for disparities; theories of genetic basis fordisparities; the built environment; residential segregation;environmental health; occupational health; health disparities inintegrated communities; Latino health; Asian populations; stressand health; physician/patient relationships; hospital treatment ofminorities; the slavery hypertension hypothesis; geographicdisparities; and intervention design.

Inequality, Crime, and Health among African American Males

Imprisonment, homicide, non-lethal assault and other crime, chronic and infectious disease, substance abuse, suicide, and accidents all contribute to the much wider gap in the community-level sex ratios found among African Americans compared to those observed found among other ethnic and racial groups in the United States. This wide array of causes and correlates of African American male mortality, disability, and confinement suggests an area in need of interdisciplinary inquiry that examines the intersection between public health and public safety.   Health analysts and social scientists across many disciplines have studied the disproportionately high levels of disease, disability, premature death, and exposure to the criminal justice system in African Americans communities extensively. To date, there has been little overlap between the diverse literatures even though the very same factors leading to crime and punishment among African American males often contribute to their poor physical and mental health profiles. This book addresses this omission by including chapters exploring the multifaceted dimensions of the varied disadvantages faced by African American males.  Authors draw from an array of theoretical and methodological frameworks to illustrate how poor outcomes and sharp disparities among individuals and communities can be linked to the interplay of multiple factors operating at multiple levels. This volume is a useful resource for serious scholars and makers of public policy who seek to understand the causal interplay among economic and racial inequality, gender, crime, punishment, and health outcomes among all African Americans.

Strategies for Deconstructing Racism in the Health and Human Services

Building on the successful outcomes of a five-year initiative undertaken in New York City, Alma Carten, Alan Siskind, and Mary Pender Greene bring together a national roster of leading practitioners, scholars, and advocates who draw upon extensive practice experiences and original research.Together, they offer a range of strategies with a high potential for creating the critical mass for change that is essential to transforming the nation's health and human services systems.Strategies for Deconstructing Racism in the Health and Human Services closes the gap in the literature examining the role of interpersonal bias, structural racism, and institutional racism that diminish service access and serve as the root cause for the persistence of disparate racial and ethnicoutcomes observed in the nation's health and human services systems. The one-of-a-kind text is especially relevant today as population trends are dramatically changing the nation's demographic and cultural landscape, while funds for the health and human services diminish and demands for culturallyrelevant evidence-based interventions increase. The book is an invaluable resource for service providers and educational institutions that play a central role in the education and preparation of the health and human service workforce.

Racism in America: A Reader

Unconscious Bias in Healthcare. Augustus A White III MD p 70