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Business Research Guide

Citations for Business Research

In academic writing, you need to know about citations and formatting styles.


  • Citations refer to the way you credit resources, like noting the author, title, and page numbers when you quote or paraphrase material. APA (American Psychological Association) and IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) are two different citation styles often used for Business writing. To learn about these guidelines, visit our APA and IEEE citation guides to learn how to cite with these styles.


  • Formatting refers to the way that elements of a report are arranged, such as font size, typeface, spacing, and margins. Some people writing about Business topics use a format called White Paper Style. You can learn about the standards for this formatting system by visiting our White Paper Style Guide.

Every course is unique, so check with your professor about which citation style or paper format they prefer before starting your assignment.

We also suggest reaching out to the Writing Center for in-depth advice on citation and formatting.

UML Writing Center

The UMass Lowell Writing Center offers help for all stages of your writing, including citations and formatting. They have locations on both sides of the river:

  • North Campus
    • Cumnock Hall, across University Ave. from Lydon Library
  • South Campus
    • O’Leary Library – 1st floor

Visit the Writing Center website to book a consultation or tutoring session. You’ll need to log in with your UML credentials before you can schedule an appointment.