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Civil Engineering Research

Civil Engineering Career and Study Resources.

Purpose of Citation

The purpose of citation is to:

  • allow other scholars to locate the work you used in your research 
  • avoid academic misconduct.

Different disciplines and scholarly journals have their own required citation styles. If you are preparing citations for a paper, check with your instructor to be sure you are following the citation style required.

Without good citation, creators never get credit for their hard work!

Common Elements of  Citations

These are the elements of all citations at their most basic. Remember, part of the point is to allow readers to find your source themselves. These elements are formatted, punctuated, and distributed differently depending on the requirements of your discipline.



Maddox, J. T. I.




Challenging the black atlantic : The new world novels of zapata olivella and gonçalves.

[this should be on one line]


Bucknell University Press

Depending on the particular style, you may also need to include page numbers, URL or DOI, date accessed. The formatting of the authors' name will be different, and punctuation is crucial. Placement of punctuation differs from style to style.

Citation Style by Department/College

Department Citation Style
Manning School of Business APA (American Psychological Association) 
Accounting APA (American Psychological Association) 
Finance APA (American Psychological Association) 
Management APA (American Psychological Association) 
Marketing, Entrepreneurship, & Innovation APA (American Psychological Association) 
Operations and Information Systems APA (American Psychological Association) 
Zuckerberg College of Health Sciences APA (American Psychological Association) 
Solomont School of Nursing APA (American Psychological Association) 
Public Health Department APA (American Psychological Association) 
Biomedical & Nutritional Sciences Department APA (American Psychological Association) 
Physical Therapy Department APA (American Psychological Association) 
Francis College of Engineering Varies*
Chemical Engineering Department AICHE or  APA
Civil & Environmental Engineering Department ASME, ASCE or APA
Electrical & Computer Engineering Department IEEE or APA
Mechanical Engineering Department IEEE (or AIAA, ASME, APA)
Plastics Engineering Department AICHE, ASME or APA
College of Fine Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences Varies*
Art & Design Department MLA (Modern Language Association) 
Criminology and Justice Studies APA (American Psychological Association)
Economics Department Chicago Manual of Style
English Department

MLA (Modern Language Association)

History Department Chicago Manual of Style
Music Department MLA (Modern Language Association)
Philosophy Department MLA (Modern Language Association)
Political Science Department APA (American Psychological Association) 
Psychology Department APA (American Psychological Association) 
Sociology Department APA (American Psychological Association) 
World Languages & Cultures Department MLA (Modern Language Association)
Kennedy College of Sciences *Varies
Biological Sciences Department APA (American Psychological Association) 
Chemistry Department APA or ACS
Computer Science Department IEEE & ACM 
Environmental, Earth & Atmospheric Sciences Department APA (American Psychological Association)
Mathematical Sciences Department APA (American Psychological Association)
Physics Department AIP Style (American Institute of Physics)
College of Education APA (American Psychological Association)