Elementary Logic by Brian GarrettElementary Logic explains what logic is, how it is done, and why it can be exciting. The book covers the central part of logic that all students have to learn: propositional logic. It aims to provide a crystal-clear introduction to what is often regarded as the most technically difficult area in philosophy. The book opens with an explanation of what logic is and how it is constructed. Subsequent chapters take the reader step-by-step through all aspects of elementary logic. Throughout, ideas are explained simply and directly, with the chapters packed with overviews, illustrative examples, and summaries. Each chapter builds on previous explanation and example, with the final chapters presenting more advanced methods. After a discussion of meta-logic and logical systems, the book closes with an exploration of how paradoxes can exist in the world of logic. Elementary Logic's clarity and engagement make it ideal for any reader studying logic for the first time.
Logic by Alexander PfänderAlexander Pfänder's classical phenomenological logic, a masterwork of unmatched clarity, is presented here for the first time in English. The book unfolds the general essence of logic, its object, not acts of thinking but objective "thoughts", meanings and higher unities formed by them: the nature and kinds (1) of judgments (propositions) and their truth and truth claims, (2) of concepts, and (3)of inferences; (4)the first foundational principles of logic (the principles of identity, contradiction, excluded middle, and sufficient reason) and of valid inferences, their foundation in ontological principles, as well as the valid forms of reasoning recognized in traditional logic and the reasons of their validity. Being a new phenomenological exposition of traditional logic, it reduces the symbolic language used to a minimum in order to concentrate on the logical meanings and laws themselves for which these symbols are signs.
Intermediate Logic by David BostockIntermediate Logic is an ideal text for anyone who has taken a first course in logic and is progressing to further study. It examines logical theory, rather than the applications of logic, and does not assume any specific technical grounding. The author introduces and explains each conceptand term, ensuring that readers have a firm foundation for study. He provides a broad, deep understanding of logic by adopting and comparing a variety of different methods and approaches.In the first section, Bostock covers such fundamental notions as truth, validity, entailment, qualification, and decision procedures. Part Two lays out a definitive introduction to four key logical tools or procedures: semantic tableaux, axiomatic proofs, natural deduction, and sequent calculi.The final section opens up new areas of existence and identity, concluding by moveing from orthodox logic to an examination of `free logic'.Intermediate Logic provides an ideal secondary course in logic for university students, and a bridge to advanced study of such subjects as model theory, proof theory, and other specialized areas of mathematical logic.