Chicago Manual of Style

General Rule for the Notes & Bibliography Style

The Notes & Bibliography style is most often used by scholars in the humanities, e.g. history, literature, the arts.

 Place citations in notes either at the end of the page (footnotes) or at the end of the paper (endnotes).
 List all sources at the end of your paper on a new page entitled "Bibliography."
 Alphabetize the bibliography by author's last name, or by title if a work's author is unknown.

For typographic requirements of Chicago Style, ( margins, spacing, page numbering, etc.) please watch this Youtube video  which sets out a very clear description, with examples, of how to do this.


The first step in creating notes, whether they wind up as footnotes or endnotes, is to acknowledge a source in your paper by placing  a superscript number (raised slightly above the line) immediately after the end punctuation of a sentence containing the quotation, paraphrase, or summary. The numbers will be sequential, as sources appear in your text.

 Notes corresponding to the numbers in the body of your text may come at the bottom of each page, separated from the text with a typed line, 1 and 1/2 inches long. 

OR Some instructors will allow you to (or prefer that you) place notes, instead, as endnotes on a separate page (titled Notes) at the end of your paper, after any appendices.

 Do not put any punctuation after the number in the body of the text.  In the footnote or endnote itself, use the same number, but do not raise or superscript it; put a period and one space after the number.

The notes themselves are single-spaced, and the first line of each note is indented five spaces from the left margin.

Double-space between notes. If a single paragraph of your paper contains several references from the same author, it is permissible to use one number after the last quotation, paraphrase, or summary to indicate the source for all of the material used in that paragraph.

Generally there is no need to use the abbreviations "p." and "pp." before page numbers; simply list the appropriate numbers as the last piece of information in the note. What follows is a sample set of endnotes. Please notice the order of the items in each note as well as the punctuation. The first time a work is cited, full information is given (author, title, volume, publication, information, page, etc.) 

Book Citation


1. Zadie Smith, Swing Time (New York: Penguin Press, 2016), 315–16.

2. Brian Grazer and Charles Fishman, A Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2015), 12.

Shortened Notes

3. Smith, Swing Time, 320.

4. Grazer and Fishman, Curious Mind, 37.

Bibliography Entries (in alphabetical order)

Grazer, Brian, and Charles Fishman. A Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life.New York: Simon & Schuster, 2015.

Smith, Zadie. Swing Time. New York: Penguin Press, 2016.

For many more examples, covering virtually every type of book, see 14.100–163 in The Chicago Manual of Style.