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Qualitative Research in Education: Situated and Applied


"Elicited from participants in response to the researchers questions or prompts" (Salmon)

  • Interviews
  • Focus Groups
  • Participant Observation
  • Autoethnographic Data


"Using data generated with participants during the study" (Salmon)

  • Vignettes or problem-solving activities
  • Simulations, role plays
  • Arts-based research
  • Games


Data is designed, collected, analyzed  and made sense of by researcher and researchee working together. Occurs in truly participatory studies, where the roles of the researcher and researchee are fused in ways that represent a shift in power toward a more equitable relationship between the two. 

  • Many forms are possible from all three categories