Genocide: Armenian, Rwandan, Cambodian, and the Holocaust

Educational Resources

UML eBooks

Recommended Books

We wish to Inform you that Tomorrow we will be Killed With our Families, by Philip Gourevitch
With keen dramatic intensity, Gourevitch frames the genesis and horror of Rwanda's "genocidal logic" in the anguish of its aftermath: the mass displacements, the temptations of revenge and the quest for justice, the impossibly crowded prisons and refugee camps. Through intimate portraits of Rwandans in all walks of life, he focuses on the psychological and political challenges of survival and on how the new leaders of postcolonial Africa went to war in the Congo when resurgent genocidal forces threatened to overrun central Africa. â€‹Read Chapter 1 here

Shake Hands with the Devil, by Romeo Dalliare
For the first time in the United States comes the tragic and profoundly important story of the legendary Canadian general who "watched as the devil took control of paradise on earth and fed on the blood of the people we were supposed to protect." When Roméo Dallaire was called on to serve as force commander of the UN Assistance Mission for Rwanda, he believed that his assignment was to help two warring parties achieve the peace they both wanted. Instead, he was exposed to the most barbarous and chaotic display of civil war and genocide in the past decade, observing in just one hundred days the killings of more than eight hundred thousand Rwandans.

A People Betrayed: The Role of the West in Rwanda’s Genocide, by Linda Melvern
Melvern gives a shocking portrait of calculated mass murder, revealing how the international community, and especially the U.S., failed to act in the face of a carefully executed plan to murder one million Tutsis and moderate Hutus in Rwanda in 1994.

When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda, by Mahmood Mamdani
Mamdani attempts to give his readers an understanding of all of the historical reasons underlying the 1994 massacre.  His holistic approach to explaining the Tutsi genocide in Rwanda makes Mamdani’s When Victims Become Killers a must read for anyone interested in knowing how such an enormous calamity could occur in modern Africa.

ArtifactNews Articles

Rwandan Genocide: 100 days of Slaughter
BBC news article about the Rwandan Genocide that includes an historical overview of the event as well as links to short videos.

Rwanda: The Art of Remembering and Forgetting
A National Geographic article about Rwanda today.

Bystanders to Genocide
Lengthy article from the Atlantic that includes exclusive interviews with scores of the participants in the decision-making of the Rwandan Genocide

Rwanda: How the Genocide Happened (BBC)
BBC news articles about history of violence and build up to the Rwandan Genocide. 

The Rwandan Girl Who Refused to Die
A news article by Fergal Keane reprinted from the Sunday Times. 

Journal Articles

Ten Years After the Genocide: Trauma Confrontation and Posttraumatic Stress in Rwandan Adolescents by Susanne Schaal and Thomas Elbert 
A decade after the 1994 Rwandan genocide, we interviewed a total of 68 Rwandan orphans about their war experiences and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. 

How many perpetrators were there in the Rwandan genocide? An estimate by Scott Strauss
This article aims to estimate the number of perpetrators involved in the Rwandan genocide.


100 Days of Slaughter: A Chronology of US/UN Actions
A Timeline of events beginning in April of 1994, including statements from President Clinton with links to full speeches and reports. 

Genocide Archive of Rwanda Documents
The Genocide Archive of Rwanda collections contain text based documents related to the 1994 genocide against the Tutsi in Rwanda. Read through these collections that include newspapers and articles, correspondences, reports and more.

image of children playing on the streets in rwanda

This collection of images, taken by photographer Vanessa Vick, illustrates the struggles of Rwanda's children after the genocide-- those living or working on the streets; those living in institutions and those who live in households with no adults. Click image to see more. Rwandan Genocide
Article with links to short videos about the Rwandan Genocide on

PBS Historical Chronology of the Rwandan Genocide
Compiled from Fergal Keane's Season of Blood and Alain Destexhe's Rwanda and Genocide in the Twentieth Century

The Genocide Teaching Project
The Project provides resources to teach about the legal concept of genocide in high schools, including adiscussion of the Genocide Convention (1948), a brief overview of genocides that have taken place throughout history, and the types of behavior and actions which may lead to genocide.

International Tribunal for Rwanda
This tribunal, set up by the UN Security Council, is charged with aiding in the process of national reconciliation in Rwanda

Interactive Maps (Genocide Archive of Rwanda)
Explore our new interactive maps that feature different genocide landmarks including memorials, various post-genocide reconstruction efforts such as unity and reconciliation associations, and peace building projects undertaken by communities and the Rwandan youth around the country. The Genocide Archive of Rwanda contains several useful links including testimonies, documents, images, readings, and more. 


Ghosts of Rwanda (Frontline)
A story of those bystanders who did not act during the genocide in Rwanda. This link inlcude excerpts from the full movie, a journalists testimony or moral witness as well as links to interview transcripts, excerpts from books analyzing the situation in Rwanda and a timeline of significant events.

Valentina's Nightmare (Frontline)
A wounded teen hides among corpses after the 1994 massacre of Tutsi by Rwandan Hutu. This link includes a transcript of the film as well as links to reports, articles, maps, etc. related to this topic. 

Hotel Rwanda
2004 British-Italian-South African historical drama film directed by Terry George. It was adapted from a screenplay written by both George and Keir Pearson. It stars Don Cheadle and Sophie Okonedo as hotelier Paul Rusesabagina and his wife Tatiana. Based on the Rwandan Genocide which occurred during the spring of 1994, the film, which has been called an African Schindler's List, documents Rusesabagina's acts to save the lives of his family and more than a thousand other refugees by granting them shelter in the besieged Hôtel des Mille Collines.[3] Hotel Rwanda explores genocide, political corruption, and the repercussions of violence (wikipedia).

My Neighbor My Killer
In 1994, hundreds of thousands of Rwandan Hutus were incited to wipe out the country's Tutsi minority. From the crowded capital to the smallest village, local 'patrols' massacred lifelong friends and family members, most often with machetes and improvised weapons. Announced in 2001, and ending this year, the government put in place the Gacaca Tribunals — open-air hearings with citizen-judges meant to try their neighbors and rebuild the nation. As part of this experiment in reconciliation, confessed genocide killers are sent home from prison, while traumatized survivors are asked to forgive them and resume living side-by-side. Filming for close to a decade in a tiny hamlet, award-winning filmmaker Anne Aghion has charted the impact of Gacaca on survivors and perpetrators alike. Through their fear and anger, accusations and defenses, blurry truths, inconsolable sadness, and hope for life renewed, she captures the emotional journey to coexistence.

ArtifactRwandan Genocide Testimony (USC Shoah Foundation)
USC Shoah Foundation has 84 interviews conducted in Rwanda 

Letter to Daniel (Frontline)
Moving, powerful account of witnessing genocide, here's an essay (with RealAudio) by a BBC reporter who covered the Rwanda genocide.

Genocide Archive of Rwanda
The Genocide Archive of Rwanda collections contain over one hundred testimonies from survivors, rescuers, elders and perpetrators of the 1994 genocide against the Tutsi. Please be aware some testimonies contain sensitive content.

iWitness Activity: The Genocide Against the Tutsi in Rwanda
Through this activity, students will learn about the history of the Genocide against the Tutsi in Rwanda specifically, the history of genocide generally, and the stages of genocide. They will also be introduced to testimony of eyewitnesses who survived.

The Bystander Effect: Rwanda
In this activity, students will develop an understanding of what it means to be a bystander and its potential impact in the context of the Genocide against the Tutsi in Rwanda.

How Genocide Starts
The Genocide against the Tutsi in Rwanda shared characteristics with other genocides that came before and after it. In this activity, students will learn about the history of genocide and the early stages of genocide. They will also be introduced to the testimonies of eyewitnesses who survived.

Ghosts of Rwanda
A video documents the Rwandan Genocide. This link is a teachers guide to the film which includes activities/lesson plans. 

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