CSE Writing Style

Name-Year Citations

CSE's name-year in-text reference takes the form of the author's last name and the year of publication, in parentheses.

Cite a source written by one author
The rapid discovery of the unique mechanisms underlying crown gall disease demonstrated how quickly an area could advince given significant investment and competition (Zambryski 1988).

Cite a source written by two authors
Initial infection of tubers by H. solani occurs in the field either from the seed tuber (Jellis and Taylor 1977) or soil (Merida and Loria 1994).

Cite a source written by three or more authors
For example, terrestrial carbon can play a central role in supporting lake food webs (Pace et al. 2004), while the problem of aquatic ecosystem
eutrophication is driven by urban and agricultural land use that contributes nutrients to downstream aquatic systems (Carpenter et al. 1998).

Where to cite

Cite sources as close as practicable to the information they support. This might mean citing a source at the end of a sentence or in the middle of a sentence. This might lead to long sentences, with citations immediately following the topics with which those sources are associated:

Although "target" ranges of MUN have been proposed (Hof et al. 1997; Kohn et al. 2002), its use as a management tool on farms remains uncertain because of permanent or temporary effects specific to herds (e.g., rolling herd average for milk production; Rajala-Schultz and Saville 2003), cows within a herd (e.g., breed, parity, stage of lactation; Godden et al. 2001), DHI test-day level of milk production (Johnson and Young 2003), method of sampling (morning vs. evening; Godden et al. 2001), method of analysis (Peterson et al. 2004; Kohn et al. 2004), and time-dependent factors such as month (Arunvipas et al. 2003) or season (Godden et al. 2001).

If you name your author in the sentence near the citation, you do not need to repeat that name in the citation itself:

In this study we develop a conceptual model for understanding the linkages between aquatic habitats and the surrounding terrestrial landscape, building on ideas presented by Polis and Hurd (1996) and Gasith and Hasler (1976) who examined spatial linkages between islands and the surrounding sea and terrestrial organic inputs into lakes, respectively.

The above from University of Wisconsin Writing Center


More Examples of Name-Year system:

► Citing a work by a single author

The NIH has called for a change in smallpox vaccination policy (Fauci 2002) that...

► Citing a work by two authors
When a work has 2 authors, give both names and separate them by "and" plus the year in between parentheses. If the authors have the same surname, include their first initials.


In a recent study (Williams and Jones 2013) found...
In a recent study (Williams T and Williams B 2013) found...

 Citing a work by three or more authors
When a work has more than two authors, give only the first author's name followed by "et al." and the publication year.


 ... but later studies (Ito et al. 2014) established that..

► Corporations or organizations as authors
If the author is an organization, committee, or corporation, a shortened form may be created for the in-text reference to avoid interrupting the text with a long string of words. Use the initial letters of each part of the name or a readily recognizable abbreviation.  Include your abbreviation in square brackets for your reference list.


 The landmark report on legalized abortion ([IOM] 1975) was...

No author
► If the author cannot be determined, do not use "anonymous."  Instead, substitute it with an organization name if one is available. If there is no organization, use the first word or few words of the title, followed by ellipsis. Only use enough words of the title to distinguish it from other titles. 
        Drug dosage recommendations for elderly patients (Handbook... 2000) depart from...

No date
► Occasionally it is not possible to determine any date associated with a publication.  If the document was found online, use the date you viewed it instead.  Alternatively for print publications, place the words "date unknown" within square brackets. 
        Only one study (Hamilton 2014) relating the adverse effects of hormone...
        Only one study (Hamilton [date unknown]) relating the adverse effects of...

The preceding derived in part from Willamette University Writing Center