CSE Writing Style

Types of References

References for books follow the order Author(s). Title. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; date. Extent.

1 Allen C, Prior P, Hayward AC. Bacterial wilt: the disease and the Ralstonia solanacearumspecies complex. St. Paul (MN): APS Press; 2005. 508 p.

[A book's extent in number of pages ("508 p." in the example above) is optional but provides useful information.]

Book Chapter

References for chapters or other parts of a book follow the order Author(s). Chapter title. In: Editor(s). Book title. Place of publication: publisher; year. Page numbers for that chapter.

2 Otegui MS. Endosperm: development and molecular biology. In: Olson OA, editor. Endosperm cell walls: formation, composition, and functions. Heidelberg (Germany): Springer-Verlag; 2007. p. 159-178.

3 Allen, C. Bacteria, bioterrorism, and the geranium ladies of Guatemala. In: Cabezas AL, Reese E, Waller M, editors. Wages of empire: neoliberal policies, repression, and women's poverty. Boulder (CO): Paradigm Press; 2007. p. 169-177.

Journal article

References for journal articles follow the order Author(s). Article title. Abbreviated journal title. Date;volume(issue):pages.

To save space, CSE suggests that writers abbreviate the titles of journals in according to the ISO 4 standard, which you can read about at ISSN. You can also search ISSN's List of Title Word Abbreviations.

4 Wang Y, Zhu J, DeLuca HF. Where is the vitamin D receptor? Arch Biochem Biophys. 2012 Jul 1;523(1):123-33.

5 Powell JM, Wattiaux MA, Broderick GA. Evaluation of milk urea nitrogen as a management tool to reduce ammonia emissions from dairy farms. J Dairy Sci. 2011;94(9):4690-4694

6 Flores-Cruz Z, Allen C. Necessity of OxyR for the hydrogen peroxide stress response and full virulence in Ralstonia solanacearum. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77(18):6426-6432.

Reference list information for articles found online adds a medium designator—[Internet], including the brackets—at the end of the title of the journal, as well as a citation date and a URL. The CSE Manual does not explicitly require this information if the online content is identical to the print content.

7 Werling BP, Lowenstein DM, Straub CS, Gratton C. Multi-predator effects produced by functionally distinct species vary with prey density. J Insect Sci [Internet]. 2012 [cited 12 Sep 2013]; 12(30). Available from: insectscience.org/12.30

8 Bennett AB, Gratton C. Floral diversity increases beneficial arthropod richness and decreases variability in arthropod community composition. Ecol Appl [Internet]. 2013 [cited 12 Sep 2013];23(1):86-95. Available from: http://labs.russell.wisc.edu/gratton/files/2013/03/Ecological-Applications.pdf

Book with Editors

Herndl CG, Brown SC, editors. 1996. Green culture: environmental rhetoric in contemporary America.       Madison (WI): University of Wisconsin Press.

Book With No Author

CRC handbook of chemistry and physics. c2008. Cleveland (OH): CRC Press.


Williams R, Johnson P. 2008. Genetic policing: the use of DNA in chemical investigations [Internet]. Portland (OR): Willan Publishing; [cited 2014 Sept 30]. Available from NetLibrary: http://www.netlibrary.com/