How to cite multiple sources in one sentence
When using Citation-sequence or Citation-name numbering systems, the following rules apply:
If the numbers are not in a continuous sequence, use commas (with no spaces) between numbers. If you have more than two numbers in a continuous sequence, use the first and last number of the sequence joined by a hyphen.
Example from A new model for caste development in social wasps by UW-Madison Professor Robert Jeanne (Entomology) and postdoc Sainath Suryanarayanan (Community and Environmental Sociology):
For the non-dimorphic polistines such as Polistes, Ropalidia and others, the long-standing view is that differences in the quantity of nourishment received during the larval stage act as a "nutritional switch" to bias development toward one caste or the other 7,8,11-14.
Example from Cadherin complexity: recent insights into cadherin superfamily function in C. elegans by UW-Madison graduate student Timothy Loveless (Cellular and Molecular Biology) and Professor Jeff Hardin (Zoology):
|Basolateral foci of HMP-1 and DLG-1 accumulate despite unperturbed localization of LET-413/Scribble 19, which normally excludes AJ components from basolateral surfaces 23,24.|
How to cite one source in multiple sentences
Once you have assigned a source a number, use that same number every time you cite it.
Example from Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Synthesized with Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization by UW-Madison Biochemistry postdoc Matthew J. Allen and Professors Ronald J. Raines and Laura L. Kiessling:
|Moreover, the use of ROMP is advantageous because it can yield polymers of well-defined length 6. To synthesize the target polymers 8a and 8b we employed the ruthenium initiator (H2IMes)(3-Br-py)2(Cl)2RudCHPh. Its rate of initiation relative to propagation affords polymers of well-defined average lengths 6,8.|
Example from The Role of Secretion Systems and Small Molecules in Soft-Rot Enterobacteriaceae Pathogenicity by UW-Madison Professor Amy Charkowski (Plant Pathology) et al.
|Once associated with an insect, some isolates of Pectobacterium carotovorum can infect and persist in D. melanogaster and activate an immune response 8,9. The protein Evf (Erwiniavirulence factor), present only in insect-associated strains, promotes the persistence of bacteria in the insect midgut. Evf synthesis is regulated by SlyA (Hor), which also regulates plant virulence genes 1,9.|
How to cite sources in tables and figures
Avoid using superscripted numerals in figures where they might be misconstrued as exponents. Instead, use superscripted letters like a,b for tables and figures. List them sequentially after all the text citations.
How to quote or excerpt a source
Although CSE provides rules for how to quote or excerpt sources, in practice almost no scientists publishing in journals that use CSE documentation choose to quote sources. Instead, these authors paraphrase or simply cite authors.
When you quote or excerpt a source, include an in-text reference to help your reader see what source you are quoting from. The seventh edition of the CSE Manual does not provide specific rules for identifying the page number or other location information for that source.
How to cite a work cited by your source (secondary citation)
Secondary citations refer to material that you have not seen in its original form but rather have obtained from another document that cited the original source. In the 2006 edition of the CSE Manual, secondary citations are not listed as a valid form of citation. Instead, find and cite the original source.
Information above derived from University of Wisconsin Writing Center.