CSE Writing Style

What You Can Do

What are In-Text References?

 In-text references consist of paraphrased descriptions of research done by others.

In the CSE citation systems described here, numbers in a sentence refer to sources listed at the end of the document. Two of these systems, (citation-sequence, citation-name), differ only in how sources are numbered in the reference list: sequentially (citation-sequence) or alphabetically by author's name,(citation-name).

A third system, Name-Year, is used in some contexts. In this style, following a sentence in which the concepts derive from another's work, the authors surname and year of the publication from which the ideas derive appear in parentheses.

Step One: Which System?

When choosing which citation system to use consider the following:

► In the citation-sequence system, sources are numbered by order of reference, so that the first reference cited in the paper is 1, the second 2, and so on.

► In citation-name, the sources are numbered alphabetically so that 1 refers to the first source in an alphabetical list, 2 refers to the second source in that list, and so on.

When possible, put numbers immediately after the relevant word or phrase rather than at the end of a sentence.

► In Name-Year, references in your text give the last name of the author or authors and the year of publication within parentheses. These parenthetical refer to sources listed at the end of the document.

The use of any of the three CSE citation styles may be dictated by the context in which a researcher finds herself. However when choosing which to follow bear in mind that it is in the Reference List that the importance of your system resides. The goal is for a reader easily to connect a number in the text with its source in the reference list at the end of the paper. Whether this is most easily accomplished by alphabetically listing the references to begin with and then assigning a number to each, or by numbering the citations in the text as you go along and then correlating them to the sources in the Reference List at the end is for each author to decide.

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Step Two: Format in-text references

►In the style advocated by CSE  numbers appear in superscript, and appear before punctuation marks (commas or periods).

Example from The CSE Manual:

Traumatic life events and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are endemic among American civilians 1.

text2

However, many scientific journals format these numbers differently, using square brackets or parentheses, or putting superscript numbers after the period.

► Example from Communicative & Integrative Biology (2011):

The most fundamental specialization of the eusocial insects is the division of colony members into two castes, workers (functionally sterile individuals) and reproductives.1

Example from Current Opinion in Cell Biology (2012):

The classical cadherin system connects cadherins to the actin cytoskeleton via b-catenin and a-catenin to maintain tissue integrity in metazoans [1].

Example from mBio (2012):

Although xylem is considered a nutrient-limiting, low-oxygen environment (1), R. solanacearum is well adapted to it, growing to cell densities of 108 to 109 CFU/g stem while still remaining limited to xylem (2).