What are In-Text References?
In-text references consist of paraphrased descriptions of research done by others.
In the CSE citation systems described here, numbers in a sentence refer to sources listed at the end of the document. Two of these systems, (citation-sequence, citation-name), differ only in how sources are numbered in the reference list: sequentially (citation-sequence) or alphabetically by author's name,(citation-name).
A third system, Name-Year, is used in some contexts. In this style, following a sentence in which the concepts derive from another's work, the authors surname and year of the publication from which the ideas derive appear in parentheses.
The use of any of the three CSE citation styles may be dictated by the context in which a researcher finds herself. However when choosing which to follow bear in mind that The goal is for a reader easily to with its at the end of the paper. Whether this is most easily accomplished by alphabetically listing the references to begin with and then assigning a number to each, or by numbering the citations in the text as you go along and then correlating them to the sources in the Reference List at the end is for each author to decide.
Step Two: Format in-text references
►In the style advocated by CSE numbers appear in superscript, and appear before punctuation marks (commas or periods).
Example from The CSE Manual:
Traumatic life events and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are endemic among American civilians 1.