Bibliometrics, Scientometrics and Discovery

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Scientometrics describe the quantitative features and characteristics of science and scientific research.  It is a process of investigation in which the development and mechanism of science are studied by statistical mathematical methods.

Scientometrics is the study of measuring and analysing science, technology and innovation. Major research issues include the measurement of impact, reference sets of articles to investigate the impact of journals and institutes, understanding of scientific citations, mapping scientific fields and the production of indicators for use in policy and management contexts.[1] In practice there is a significant overlap between scientometrics and other scientific fields such as bibliometrics, information systems, information science and science of science policy.

Methods of research include qualitative, quantitative and computational approaches. The main foci of studies have been on institutional productivity comparisons, institutional research rankings, journal rankings [3][4][7] establishing faculty productivity and tenure standards,[8] assessing the influence of top scholarly articles,[9] and developing profiles of top authors and institutions in terms of research performance [10]

One significant finding in the field is a principle of cost escalation to the effect that achieving further findings at a given level of importance grow exponentially more costly in the expenditure of effort and resources. However, new algorithmic methods in search, machine learning and data mining are showing that is not the case for many information retrieval and extraction-based problems. Related fields are the history of science and technology, philosophy of science and sociology of scientific knowledge.

Journals in the field include Scientometrics, Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, and Journal of Informetrics.[11] The International Society for Scientometrics and Informetrics founded in 1993 is an association of professionals in the field.